Fiber Optic Internet Connection Explained

Monday, Dec 28, 2020 · 10 mins


How Does Fiber Optic Internet Work

If you are wondering how a fiber optic cable works or why it’s the fastest, you are not alone. In this article, we will take you through the fundamentals of fiber optic cable and how it works.

How Do Fiber Optic Cables Work?

Numerous smaller optical fibers make up one fiber cable. These fibers are exceedingly thin, less than a tenth as thick as human hair. They can pass a lot of information even though they are thin. There are two parts of each optical fiber:

  1. The Core:

    Typically made of glass, the core is the innermost portion of the fiber through which the light passes.

  2. The Cladding:

    Typically made of a thicker plastic or glass sheet, the core is wrapped around the cladding

These two sections function together to create an overall internal reflection. Total internal reflection is how light can without escaping, travel down the fibers. That is when the light enters the glass at a shallow angle and reflects against a mirror, bouncing back again. The cladding retains the light in the center since there is a particular optical density in the glass it is made of. Both of these terms apply to how (refraction) the glass bends and thus slows down the light.

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Light moves through a fiber optic cable by bouncing off the cable repeatedly. With continued internal mirror-like reflection, each light particle (photon) bounces down the pipe.

The light beam passes down the center of the cable. The cable and the glass framework are an integral part of the fiber. Another layer of glass wrapped around is the cladding, to keep the light signals within the fiber optic cable.

Types of Fiber Optic Connections

FTTH: Fiber to the premises, house, business. No copper cables are involved, you get pure fiber directly to your home. These are also some ISPs with the most costly fiber connections.

FTTB: The fiber line is transmitted through copper lines in the building with fibre to the building. For apartment buildings, hotels, schools or buildings that provide many different companies with the Internet, this is a common option.

FTTO: These are internet leased lines where your internet service provider will pass a direct and dedicated internet line to your office. These are highly secure and reliable internet services for businesses.

If you are looking for a fiber optic internet connection for your home or office, you can read more about ACT Fibernet’s plans here.

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